Ethics Guideline

The authorship should be restricted to those who should meet any of the following conditions: 1) substantial contribution to the conception and design of the study, or acquisition, interpretation and analysis of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for the important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published. In studies of human subjects, the procedures should be in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of author's institute and with the Helsinki Declaration in 1975 (revised in 2000). In the case of animal experiments, author should keep the institutional or national guidelines for the acre and use of laboratory animals. For the policies on the research and publication ethics not stated in this instructions, international standards for editors and authors ( can be applied.

『Physical Therapy Korea』Ethical Guidelines
(established on January 25, 2013)

For the policies on the research and publication ethics not stated in this instruction, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, can be applied.

Chapter 1 General Provisions

Article 1 (Purpose) These guidelines apply the research ethics of the Korean Research Society of Physical Therapy (the "Society") and are intended to prevent misconduct and to provide standards for dealing with misconduct related to research, submission, review, and publication.

Article 2 (Applicable Object and Scope)
These guidelines are applicable to all members of the Society and must be followed in all cases with the exception of those in certain research areas that are subject to other special regulations regarding research ethics and honesty.

Chapter 2 Research Ethics Committee

Article 3 (Function) The Committee deliberates and votes on the items listed below.
1. Issues related to research integrity.
2. Allegations of misconduct in research.
3. Verification and oversight of research integrity.
4. Bills drafted by Committee members.

Article 4 (Composition and Meetings)
1. The Editor-in-Chief is the chairperson, and the Committee consists of seven editors, including the Chairperson.
2. The Chairperson has the authority to call a meeting.
3. A meeting is necessary to pass a resolution by more than half of the committee members attending, and by a majority of two-thirds or more of the committee members attending.
4. In general, meetings are restricted to members of the Committee; however, the Chairperson can request that a person directly involved in an issue attend a meeting to provide evidence.

Chapter 3 Integrity and Social Responsibility in Research

Article 5 (Integrity of Research)
1. A researcher must conduct all research activities (e.g., data collection, writing reports, and presenting results) in an honest and sincere way.
2. A researcher must describe the research content and its importance in an objective and specific way and must not change, omit, or add to the results.

Article 6 (Duty regarding Release of Information)
1. All research information must be reported accurately and must be recorded, processed, and preserved in a clear way that enables easy understanding.
2. If necessary, the researcher must release information about the experimental design and statistical technique(s) used.

Article 7 (Social Contribution of Research Results)
1. The researcher must respect intellectual property rights, such as patents and copyrights, and must follow other research-related regulations.
2. When publishing and using research results, the researcher must not do anything that is inconsistent with academic principles, such as distorting or overstating research results, in an attempt to enhance the researcher's reputation.

Chapter 4 Fairness regarding Roles and Responsibilities

Article 8 (Joint Research)
Collaborators must clarify the roles and relationships involved in the conduct of joint research and must take appropriate responsibility for their contributions. During the inception of research projects, collaborators must discuss and reach consensus regarding the goals and expected results of the joint research; the expected contributions of the individuals who are involved in the project; the methods of collecting, storing, and sharing data; the determination of authorship, including how the order of authorship will be decided and the selection of coauthor(s); and issues related to intellectual property rights and ownership.

Article 9 (Responsibilities of the Author)
1. The corresponding author or principal investigator takes overall responsibility for data gathering and management, manuscript writing, author descriptions, and the general management and oversight of collaborative research.
2. The corresponding author must prove the relative scientific or professional contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of their relative status, when universities or other institutions require verification of the relative contributions of the authors.

Article 10 (Corresponding Author)
1. The corresponding author is responsible for communicating the research results and for communications among co-authors.
2. The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring the accuracy of all the content in proofs and, in particular, for confirming that the names of all co-authors are included and correctly spelled and ordered.

Article 11 (Standards for Determining Authorship)
1. Authorship will be determined according to the extent of each individual's contributions to the research content or results. To be credited as an author of a publication, an individual must have been involved in the following:
a. Develoiping the research idea and design.
b. Collecting, analyzing, and interpreting the data.
c. Drafting or revising the manuscript.
d. Providing final approval of the version to be published.

2. Individuals who do not contribute to the performance of the research or to the analysis of the results do not qualify for authorship and cannot be included as authors as an expression of gratitude or by virtue of their position. Minor contributions to the research or to the writing for publication, including data collection, data input, or translation into other languages, should be acknowledged appropriately.

Article 12 (Authorship Order) The authorship order should be determined consensually after consideration of each author's contribution.

Article 13 (Author Affiliation)
The author's current status should generally be provided as his/her affiliation.

Article 14 (Ownership of the Results of Research regarding the Society)
Research data on the work of the Society collected by a member of this Society is the sole property of the Society. Thus, such research results will not be used or given to other individuals or institutions without the permission of the Society.

Article 15 (Sharing and Releasing Research Results)
The principal investigator of the research may provide data or samples of the research to other researchers upon a reasonable request from another researcher.

Chapter 5 Principles and Methods regarding Citation of Copyrighted Works

Article 16 (Methods and Principles of Citation)
1. An author must confirm all elements (authors' names, publication date, etc.)ofacitation with the original work rather than depend on secondary sources.
2. An author must cite works in a reasonable manner so that the distinction between cited and uncited works is evident.
3. In general, an author must cite only published works; when the need to cite unpublished academic materials acquired through personal contacts, including paper reviews, arises, the consent of the relevant researcher is mandatory.
4. An author must distinguish what is his/her idea from what is taken from the cited materials so that readers can clearly recognize when the author is borrowing substantive parts from another source.
5. An author must include all works that had an important effect on the research and that would help the reader understand its content.

Chapter 6 Forms of Research Misconduct and Unethical Research Conduct

Article 17 (Definition of Research Misconduct) "Research Misconduct" refers to fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, improper authorship attribution, and duplication of publication during the entire process of research (including proposing, conducting, presenting, reviewing, and evaluating research).

1. "Fabrication" refers to inventing data or results that do not exist otherwise.
2. "Falsification" refers to "manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record."
3. "Plagiarism" refers to "the appropriation of another person's writing, research ideas, hypotheses, theories, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit to the originator of the words and ideas."
4. "Improper authorship attribution" refers to not giving proper credit to the original author without any legitimate reason for not doing so and/or giving credit to those who have not contributed to a journal article.
5. "Duplicate publication" refers to the re-publishing of an author's previously published material or results in another academic publication without acknowledging the source to the publisher or readers.

Article 18 (Idea Plagiarism)
1. "Idea Plagiarism" refers to the use of someone else's ideas (theories, conclusions, hypotheses) in full, in large part, or in a partially revised form [see Article 19, "Fragmented Plagiarism") without giving appropriate credit to the originator of the words or ideas.
2. Authors have an ethical responsibility to indicate the source of ideas with a footnote or reference.
3. Authors must not steal ideas encountered through the peer review of research proposals or articles submitted by others.

Article 19 (Fragmented Plagiarism)
"Fragmented Plagiarism" refers to copying some parts of another person's manuscript without proper acknowledgement of the original author.

Article 20 (Plagiarism in Section)
"Plagiarism in section" refers to using some part of another author's manuscript by combining sections of text, inserting additional words, or substituting words without acknowledging the original author.

Article 21 (Duplication of Publication)
1. Material previously published by the current author appearing in a subsequent work by the same author with significant verbatim or near-verbatim portions of his/her own work or depictions of an authors' previously published results as new constitutes duplicate publication.
2. When duplication of publication occurs and readers do not recognize such duplication, the editors of the two journals involved must agree on the existence of the duplicate publication, and the author(s) must acknowledge that the same paper has been published previously in another journal. This applies in cases where an article has been translated into another language.
3. Simultaneous submission of a publication to another publisher's journal is prohibited. Only after rejection by one journal can an author seek to publish in another journal.

Article 22 (Precautions regarding Research Misconduct and Copyright Infringement)
1. Generally, when journals publish an academic paper, the copyright is assigned to the publisher. Thus, authors should be cautious about copyright infringement when re-publishing or reusing material already published in one journal in another form.
2. Authors should be cautious regarding infringement of copyright even when sources are properly cited if using a substantial proportion of a manuscript from a copyright-protected source.

Article 23 (Unethical Research Practices in the Review Process)
1. A referee must not use specific information directly or indirectly related to the research discussed in a research proposal or obtained during a review process without the consent of the original author.

2. The following are considered unethical research practices in the review process and must be avoided by referees:
a. Delegating the review of a journal article to a student or any third person.
b. Discussing a journal article with others while the article is still under review.
c. Retaining a copy of a journal article instead of returning or shredding it after review.
d. Directly or indirectly stealing the original author's idea during the review process.
e. Reviewing or evaluating a research article without reading it thoroughly or giving it sufficient critical consideration.

Article 24 (Unethical Research Practices)
The following are considered unethical research practices:
1. Presenting at a conference or seminar without acknowledging the other author(s) of the research.
2. Engaging in disrespectful communication or personal attacks while reviewing an article or proposal.
3. Announcing research results through the general media without appropriate verification procedures.

Article 25 (Improper Writing)
The following are considered improper writing:
1. Improper source citation.
2. Alteration of references.
3. Sole dependence on a published paper's citation.
4. Citation of an article that was not read or understood.
5. Reuse of text.
6. "Salami" publication.

Article 26 (Prohibition of the Distortion References)
References should include only directly related sources. An unrelated reference shall not be cited for the purpose of intentionally manipulating the citation index of a paper or academic journal. An author shall not cite only those references that are "favorable" to her/his data or theory and must also cite references that may dispute or contradict her/his point of view.

Article 27 (Reuse of Text)
"Reuse of text" refers to reusing some parts of a manuscript written by the author and already published. Text reuse is unethical and must be avoided when possible. In the case of unavoidable text reuse, the author should avoid copyright infringement by following standard referencing practices, including by properly referencing the prior publication.

Article 28 (Other Writing Misconduct)
The following are also considered writing misconduct:
1. Not informing readers of important relevant evidence that contradicts the author's data or argument.
2. Citing defective theories or statistics in support of the research.
3. Intentionally distorting or obscuring the research method to avoid replication by other researchers.

Chapter 7 Procedures for Addressing Research Misconduct and Unethical Research Conduct

Article 29 (Penalty) A member guilty of any of the items described in Chapter 6, Forms of Research Misconduct and Unethical Research Conduct, may receive a documentary warning, a 3-year prohibition on research-article submission, or expulsion from the Society after an investigation by the Research Ethics Committee.

1. (Enactment) These regulations shall take effect on January 25, 2013.